## Exponentiation operator in JavaScript

`exponentiation operator`

is one of the minor features introduced in
**EcmaScript2017(ES7)** language.

It uses two asterisk symbols ‘**’ on two operands to return the result with the first operand multiplied by the power of the second operand. Important points

- This is a replacement of the
`Math.pow(m,n)`

function in the Math library - used in arithmetic, scientifically, and 3D calculations
- Both operands are variables or constants
- right-associative i.e right to left, applied when multiple exponential operators are used.
- Shorter syntax for the power of values.

**Syntax of exponentiation operator**:

```
Operand1 ** Operand2 that is equal to Operand1 power of Operand2
```

Operand1 is called a `Base`

.
Operand2 is called an `exponent`

.
For example, `5***3`

is equal to `5 power of 3`

is equal to `5*5*5`

(125)

```
var m = 3;
var n = 2;
m ** n; // 9
Math.pow(m,n) // 9 returned
```

**Grouping operators from right to left**:

the operator is right-associative which means applies from right to left

```
m ** n ** 0 is equal to m ** (n ** o)
3 ** 2 ** 2 equal to 3**(2**2) // returns 91
```

Let’s see some valid and invalid examples.

## Binary operator, Unary operator is not allowed

Unary operators like +,-, delete, and void is not allowed for the base.

Invalid usage

```
+2 **4
-2** 5
```

The above code results compilation error

**unknown: Illegal expression. Wrap the left-hand side or entire exponentiation in parentheses.**

## Exponent operator on NAN,null,undefined values

- Applying any operator on NAN as an exponent results always NAN.
- Null will treat as zero and apply null results to 1
- undefined exponent results NAN

```
2 ** NAN //NAN
2 ** undefined //NAN
2 ** null // 1
```

## Exponentiation Operator Assignment(**=) example

Assignments are shorthand operators for Exponentiation operations.

For example

```
p**=q is equal to p=p** q
```

Here is an example

```
var m = 3;
console.log(m **=3); // 27
console.log(m **='abc'); // NAN
```

Like a normal operator, if used with a string, it returns the `NAN`

value.