# ES7 Exponentiation Operator

This tutorial covers exponential operator introduced in ES7, ES2016 javascript..

## Introduction

exponentiation operator is one of minor feature introduced in **EcmaScript2017(ES7)** language.

It applies two asterisk symbols `**`

on two operands which returns the result of first operand to power of second operand.

Important points

- These is replacement of
`Math.pow(m,n)`

function in Math library - used in arithmetic,scientifically and 3D calculations
- Both operands are variables or constants
- right associative ie right to left, applied when multiple exponential operators are used
- Shorter syntax for power of values.

**Syntax of exponentiation operator**

```
Operand1 ** Operand2 which is equal to Operand1 power of Operand2
```

Operand1 is called as `Base`

Operand2 is called as `exponent`

For example, `5***3`

is equal to `5 power of 3`

is equal to `5*5*5`

(125)

```
var m = 3;
var n = 2;
m ** n; // 9
Math.pow(m,n) // 9 returned
**Grouping operators from right to left**
operator is right associative which means applies from right to left
```javascript
m ** n ** 0 is equal to m ** (n ** o)
3 ** 2 ** 2 equl to 3**(2**2) // returns 91
```

Some of the valid and invalid examples are seen below

### Binary operator, Unary opeartor is not allowed

Unary operators like +,-,delete and void are not allowed for base

Invalid usage

```
+2 **4
-2** 5
```

The above code results compilation error
**unknown: Illegal expression. Wrap left hand side or entire exponentiation in parentheses.**

### exponent NAN,null,undefined values

- applying any operator on NAN as exponent results always NAN.
- null will treat as zero and apply null results to 1
- undefined exponent results NAN

```
2 ** NAN //NAN
2 ** undefined //NAN
2 ** null // 1
```